Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market

Global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market by Drug Class (Antipsychotics, Anti-Epileptics, CNS Stimulants, Anxiolytics, Antiparkinsonian Drugs, Anti-Hypertensive, NSAIDS, Anti-Allergy Drugs, Proton Pump Inhibitors, Vaccine ODT and Others), by Disease Indication (Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases, Gastrointestinal (GI) Diseases, Cardiovascular (CVS) Diseases, Allergy And Others), and by Regions (North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa)

  • Report ID: HC-153
  • Author: Growth Market Reports
  • Rating: 4.8
  • Total Reviews: 16
  • No. Of Pages: 268
  • Format:
  • Pub. Date: 2020-11-02
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Market Outlook:

The global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market was valued at USD 11,988 Million in 2019 and is projected to reach USD 25,820 Million by 2027, expanding at a CAGR of 10.18% during the forecast period. The demand for orally disintegrating tablets is growing as ageing population due to increased life expectancy in rising in many countries. Moreover, Growing awareness among people regarding the availability of advance therapies is expected to boost the demand for advanced dosage form in developing countries. Additionally, Growing demand for multivitamins is expected to create lucrative opportunities for manufacturers in the market.

Global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Summary

Market Dynamics
Aging population is increasing due to rising life expectancy. Moreover, availability of advance medical facilities and advancements in medical science have increased the survival rate of people suffering from chronic diseases. Oral disintegrating tablets is an ideal solution for the elderly, which helps them to complete a drug course. This, in turn, is expected to propel the market growth. Moreover, ODTs are suitable dosage forms prescribed for mentally disabled people, as compared to other dosage forms. It is easy to guide such people to take this dosage form, as it has fast onset of action, which provides them quick relief. Growing adoption of oral disintegrating tablets for the treatment of various conditions in mentally disabled is expected to boost the market. Furthermore, People suffering from various diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer's, lung diseases, kidney diseases, diabetes, stroke, heart diseases, and allergies, and GI disorders need to take various medications for a long period of time. Doctors prescribe oral medications to patients for post-operative care. Oral disintegrating tablets are ideal solutions for people, which disintegrates quickly and provides desired therapies with high patient compliance. Oral route of administration is convenient and acceptable dosage form for patients and physicians. Oral route administration with fast onset of action boosts the demand for ODT, which has ability to dissolve within a minute. These factors are expected to boost the ODT market growth.

However, Product recalls of ODTs by some manufacturers due to particular reasons is expected to hamper the market. For example, Impax Laboratories recalled one lot of lamotrigine orally disintegrating tablet 200 mg indicated for the treatment of epilepsy or bipolar disorders. Such increase in product recalls is expected to hinder the market. Additionally, ODTs can cause various side effects such as headaches, constipation, weakness, tiredness, dizziness, chills, loss of coordination, and drowsiness. In some conditions, it is important to inform the physician about other medications, if a person is taking along with a prescribed treatment to avoid the drug interactions, as it can led to serious side-effects.

Rising adoption of technologically advanced products and dosage forms for advanced treatment options in developing economies are expected to boost the demand for ODTs during the forecast period. Access to healthcare and improving the quality of care in developing countries are expected to create lucrative opportunities for manufacturers in these countries.

Segmental Outlook

By Drug Class Segment
On the basis of drug class, the orally disintegrating tablets market is divided into anti-psychotics, anti-epileptic’s, CNS stimulants, anxiolytics, anti-parkinsonian drugs, anti-hypertensive, NSAIDS, anti-allergy drug, proton pump inhibitor, vaccine ODT, and others. The anti-psychotics segment is expected to hold xx% share of the market in 2020. The anti-parkinsonian drugs segment is anticipated to expand at a CAGR of xx% during the forecast period. Growing prevalence of psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is projected to increase the demand for anti-psychotic drugs. Moreover, growing prevalence of Parkinson is expected to boost the demand for anti-parkinsonian drugs. ODT prescribed in the drugs class including anti-psychotics and anti-parkinsonian drugs. ODT is a widely preferred dosage form, as it provides fast effect owing to its quick disintegration, thus leading to high patient compliance.

Global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market By Drug Class

By Disease Indication Segment
Based on disease indication, the market is segregated into central nervous system diseases (CNS), gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, cardiovascular (CVS) diseases, allergy, and others. The central nervous system diseases segment is estimated to account for significant market share in 2020, owing to increasing prevalence of CNS diseases globally. The cardiovascular (CVS) diseases segment is anticipated to expand at an accountable CAGR of during the forecast period. Growing prevalence of CNS and CVS diseases is expected to boost the demand for oral disintegrating tablets.

Global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market By Disease Indication

Regional Outlook

Asia Pacific is expected to remain a highly attractive region for the orally disintegrating tablets market and is projected to expand at a high CAGR during the forecast period. The region is expected to dominate the global market, in terms of value and volume, due to the use of ODTs to reduce the prevalence of various disorders such as CND, GI disorders, CVDs, and allergies. Growing population in the region and large presence of key players operating the market are major factors that are expected to increase the demand for ODTs in the region. High patient compliance and awareness among patients about availability of such dosage forms and low cost of oral disintegrating tablets have increased the preference for ODTs in the region.

The orally disintegrating tablets market in North America is expected to grow at a significant pace during the forecast period, owing to the rise in prevalence of diseases associated with the CNS. Alzheimer's disease, Bell's palsy, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease are some CNS diseases. According to Alzheimer's Association a voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, an estimates 5.8 million people in the US, aged 65 and above are suffering from Alzheimer's disease in 2020, and this number is anticipated to reach by 13.8 million by 2050. Growing adoption of technologically advanced products is boosting the growth of the market in the region. Moreover, presence of key market players in the region is expected to boost the market in North America during the forecast period.

Global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market By Region

Competitive Landscape

  • Key players in the market include Alkem Labs, Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC, Apotex Inc., Aurobindo Pharma, Bausch Health Companies Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis AG, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Viatris Inc. (Mylan N.V. and Pfizer's Upjohn). These players are considered as key manufacturers of the market based on their different varieties of product availability, regional presence, better supply chain management system, and the increasing demand for the products.
  • The players are adopting key strategies such as product development, geographical expansion, mergers and acquisition and many other strategies to increase their demand for orally disintegrating tablets.

Key Benefits for Industry Participants & Stakeholders

  • In-depth Analysis of the ODT market.
  • Historical, Current and Projected Market Size in terms of Value.
  • Potential & Niche Segments and Regions Exhibiting Promising Growth Covered
  • Industry Drivers, Restraints and Opportunities Covered in the Study
  • Recent Industry Trends and Developments
  • Competitive Landscape & Strategies of Key Players
  • Neutral Perspective on Global ODT market Performance
Chapter 1 Executive Summary
Chapter 2 Assumptions and Acronyms Used
Chapter 3 Research Methodology
Chapter 4 Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Overview
   4.1 Introduction
      4.1.1 Market Taxonomy
      4.1.2 Market Definition
      4.1.3 Macro-Economic Factors Impacting the Market Growth
   4.2 Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Dynamics
      4.2.1 Market Drivers
      4.2.2 Market Restraints
      4.2.3 Market Opportunity
   4.3 Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market - Supply Chain Analysis
      4.3.1 List of Key Suppliers
      4.3.2 List of Key Distributors
      4.3.3 List of Key Consumers
   4.4 Key Forces Shaping the Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market
      4.4.1 Bargaining Power of Suppliers
      4.4.2 Bargaining Power of Buyers
      4.4.3 Threat of Substitution
      4.4.4 Threat of New Entrants
      4.4.5 Competitive Rivalry
   4.5 Global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size & Forecast, 2017-2027
      4.5.1 Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size and Y-o-Y Growth
      4.5.2 Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Absolute $ Opportunity
Chapter 5 Global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Analysis and Forecast By Drug Class
   5.1 Introduction
      5.1.1 Key Market Trends & Growth Opportunities By Drug Class
      5.1.2 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Drug Class
      5.1.3 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Drug Class
   5.2 Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Drug Class
      5.2.1 Antipsychotics
      5.2.2 Anti-Epileptics
      5.2.3 CNS Stimulants
      5.2.4 Anxiolytics
      5.2.5 Antiparkinsonian Drugs
      5.2.6 Anti-Hypertensive
      5.2.7 NSAIDS
      5.2.8 Anti-Allergy Drugs
      5.2.9 Proton Pump Inhibitors
      5.2.10 Vaccine ODT
      5.2.11  Others
   5.3 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Drug Class
Chapter 6 Global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Analysis and Forecast By Disease Indication
   6.1 Introduction
      6.1.1 Key Market Trends & Growth Opportunities By Disease Indication
      6.1.2 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Disease Indication
      6.1.3 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Disease Indication
   6.2 Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Disease Indication
      6.2.1 Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases
      6.2.2 Gastrointestinal (GI) Diseases
      6.2.3 Cardiovascular (CVS) Diseases
      6.2.4 Allergy
      6.2.5 Others
   6.3 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Disease Indication
Chapter 7 Global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Analysis and Forecast by Region
   7.1 Introduction
      7.1.1 Key Market Trends & Growth Opportunities by Region
      7.1.2 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis by Region
      7.1.3 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment by Region
   7.2 Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast by Region
      7.2.1 North America
      7.2.2 Europe
      7.2.3 Asia Pacific
      7.2.4 Latin America
      7.2.5 Middle East & Africa (MEA)
   7.3 Market Attractiveness Analysis by Region
Chapter 8 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Impact
   8.1 Introduction
   8.2 Current & Future Impact Analysis
   8.3 Economic Impact Analysis
   8.4 Government Policies
   8.5 Investment Scenario
Chapter 9 North America Orally Disintegrating Tablets Analysis and Forecast
   9.1 Introduction
   9.2 North America Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast by Country
      9.2.1 U.S.
      9.2.2 Canada
   9.3 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis by Country
   9.4 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment by Country
   9.5 Market Attractiveness Analysis by Country
   9.6 North America Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Drug Class
      9.6.1 Antipsychotics
      9.6.2 Anti-Epileptics
      9.6.3 CNS Stimulants
      9.6.4 Anxiolytics
      9.6.5 Antiparkinsonian Drugs
      9.6.6 Anti-Hypertensive
      9.6.7 NSAIDS
      9.6.8 Anti-Allergy Drugs
      9.6.9 Proton Pump Inhibitors
      9.6.10 Vaccine ODT
      9.6.11  Others
   9.7 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Drug Class
   9.8 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Drug Class
   9.9 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Drug Class
   9.10 North America Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Disease Indication
      9.10.1 Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases
      9.10.2 Gastrointestinal (GI) Diseases
      9.10.3 Cardiovascular (CVS) Diseases
      9.10.4 Allergy
      9.10.5 Others
   9.11 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Disease Indication
   9.12 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Disease Indication
   9.13 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Disease Indication
Chapter 10 Europe Orally Disintegrating Tablets Analysis and Forecast
   10.1 Introduction
   10.2 Europe Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast by Country
      10.2.1 Germany
      10.2.2 France
      10.2.3 Italy
      10.2.4 U.K.
      10.2.5 Spain
      10.2.6 Russia
      10.2.7 Rest of Europe
   10.3 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis by Country
   10.4 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment by Country
   10.5 Market Attractiveness Analysis by Country
   10.6 Europe Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Drug Class
      10.6.1 Antipsychotics
      10.6.2 Anti-Epileptics
      10.6.3 CNS Stimulants
      10.6.4 Anxiolytics
      10.6.5 Antiparkinsonian Drugs
      10.6.6 Anti-Hypertensive
      10.6.7 NSAIDS
      10.6.8 Anti-Allergy Drugs
      10.6.9 Proton Pump Inhibitors
      10.6.10 Vaccine ODT
      10.6.11  Others
   10.7 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Drug Class
   10.8 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Drug Class
   10.9 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Drug Class
   10.10 Europe Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Disease Indication
      10.10.1 Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases
      10.10.2 Gastrointestinal (GI) Diseases
      10.10.3 Cardiovascular (CVS) Diseases
      10.10.4 Allergy
      10.10.5 Others
   10.11 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Disease Indication
   10.12 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Disease Indication
   10.13 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Disease Indication
Chapter 11 Asia Pacific Orally Disintegrating Tablets Analysis and Forecast
   11.1 Introduction
   11.2 Asia Pacific Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast by Country
      11.2.1 China
      11.2.2 Japan
      11.2.3 South Korea
      11.2.4 India
      11.2.5 Australia
      11.2.6 South East Asia (SEA)
      11.2.7 Rest of Asia Pacific (APAC)
   11.3 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis by Country
   11.4 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment by Country
   11.5 Market Attractiveness Analysis by Country
   11.6 Asia Pacific Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Drug Class
      11.6.1 Antipsychotics
      11.6.2 Anti-Epileptics
      11.6.3 CNS Stimulants
      11.6.4 Anxiolytics
      11.6.5 Antiparkinsonian Drugs
      11.6.6 Anti-Hypertensive
      11.6.7 NSAIDS
      11.6.8 Anti-Allergy Drugs
      11.6.9 Proton Pump Inhibitors
      11.6.10 Vaccine ODT
      11.6.11  Others
   11.7 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Drug Class
   11.8 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Drug Class
   11.9 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Drug Class
   11.10 Asia Pacific Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Disease Indication
      11.10.1 Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases
      11.10.2 Gastrointestinal (GI) Diseases
      11.10.3 Cardiovascular (CVS) Diseases
      11.10.4 Allergy
      11.10.5 Others
   11.11 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Disease Indication
   11.12 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Disease Indication
   11.13 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Disease Indication
Chapter 12 Latin America Orally Disintegrating Tablets Analysis and Forecast
   12.1 Introduction
   12.2 Latin America Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast by Country
      12.2.1 Brazil
      12.2.2 Mexico
      12.2.3 Rest of Latin America (LATAM)
   12.3 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis by Country
   12.4 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment by Country
   12.5 Market Attractiveness Analysis by Country
   12.6 Latin America Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Drug Class
      12.6.1 Antipsychotics
      12.6.2 Anti-Epileptics
      12.6.3 CNS Stimulants
      12.6.4 Anxiolytics
      12.6.5 Antiparkinsonian Drugs
      12.6.6 Anti-Hypertensive
      12.6.7 NSAIDS
      12.6.8 Anti-Allergy Drugs
      12.6.9 Proton Pump Inhibitors
      12.6.10 Vaccine ODT
      12.6.11  Others
   12.7 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Drug Class
   12.8 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Drug Class
   12.9 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Drug Class
   12.10 Latin America Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Disease Indication
      12.10.1 Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases
      12.10.2 Gastrointestinal (GI) Diseases
      12.10.3 Cardiovascular (CVS) Diseases
      12.10.4 Allergy
      12.10.5 Others
   12.11 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Disease Indication
   12.12 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Disease Indication
   12.13 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Disease Indication
Chapter 13 Middle East & Africa (MEA) Orally Disintegrating Tablets Analysis and Forecast
   13.1 Introduction
   13.2 Middle East & Africa (MEA) Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast by Country
      13.2.1 Saudi Arabia
      13.2.2 South Africa
      13.2.3 UAE
      13.2.4 Rest of Middle East & Africa (MEA)
   13.3 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis by Country
   13.4 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment by Country
   13.5 Market Attractiveness Analysis by Country
   13.6 Middle East & Africa (MEA) Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Drug Class
      13.6.1 Antipsychotics
      13.6.2 Anti-Epileptics
      13.6.3 CNS Stimulants
      13.6.4 Anxiolytics
      13.6.5 Antiparkinsonian Drugs
      13.6.6 Anti-Hypertensive
      13.6.7 NSAIDS
      13.6.8 Anti-Allergy Drugs
      13.6.9 Proton Pump Inhibitors
      13.6.10 Vaccine ODT
      13.6.11  Others
   13.7 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Drug Class
   13.8 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Drug Class
   13.9 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Drug Class
   13.10 Middle East & Africa (MEA) Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market Size Forecast By Disease Indication
      13.10.1 Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases
      13.10.2 Gastrointestinal (GI) Diseases
      13.10.3 Cardiovascular (CVS) Diseases
      13.10.4 Allergy
      13.10.5 Others
   13.11 Basis Point Share (BPS) Analysis By Disease Indication
   13.12 Absolute $ Opportunity Assessment By Disease Indication
   13.13 Market Attractiveness Analysis By Disease Indication
Chapter 14 Competition Landscape
   14.1 Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market: Competitive Dashboard
   14.2 Global Orally Disintegrating Tablets Market: Market Share Analysis, 2019
   14.3 Company Profiles (Details – Overview, Financials, Developments, Strategy)
      14.3.1 Alkem Labs
      14.3.2 Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC
      14.3.3 Apotex Inc
      14.3.4 Aurobindo Pharma
      14.3.5 Bausch Health Companies Inc
      14.3.6 Eli Lilly and Company
      14.3.7 GlaxoSmithKline plc
      14.3.8 Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited
      14.3.9 Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.
      14.3.10 Merck & Co., Inc.
      14.3.11 Novartis AG
      14.3.12 Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
      14.3.13 Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited
      14.3.14 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd
      14.3.15 Viatris Inc. (Mylan N.V. and Pfizer's Upjohn)
Key Segments Covered
By Drug Class
  • Antipsychotics
  • Anti-Epileptics
  • CNS Stimulants
  • Anxiolytics
  • Antiparkinsonian Drug
  • Anti-Hypertensive
  • NSAIDS
  • Anti-Allergy Drugs
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • Vaccine ODT
  • Others
By Disease Indication
  • Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) Diseases
  • Cardiovascular (CVS) Diseases
  • Allergy
  • Others
By Regions
  • North America
    • U.S.
    • Canada
  • Latin America
    • Brazil
    • Mexico
    • Rest of Latin America
  • Europe
    • Germany
    • France
    • Italy
    • U.K.
    • Spain
    • Russia
    • Rest of Europe
  • Asia Pacific
    • China
    • Japan
    • South Korea
    • India
    • Australia
    • South East Asia (SEA)
    • Rest of Asia Pacific (APAC)
  • Middle East & Africa (MEA)
    • Saudi Arabia
    • South Africa
    • UAE
    • Rest of Middle East & Africa (MEA)

Key Market Players Profiled in the Report
  • Alkem Labs
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Aurobindo Pharma
  • Bausch Health Companies Inc.
  • Eli Lilly and Company
  • GlaxoSmithKline plc
  • Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited
  • Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.
  • Merck & Co., Inc.
  • Novartis AG
  • Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd
  • Viatris Inc. (Mylan N.V. and Pfizer's Upjohn)

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FAQ Section

Some frequently asked quetions about this report!

Additional company profiles can be provided on request.

Yes, the report covers types of orally disintegrating tablets such as Antipsychotics, Anti-Epileptics, CNS Stimulants, Anxiolytics, Antiparkinsonian Drugs, Anti-Hypertensive, NSAIDS, Anti-Allergy Drugs, Proton Pump Inhibitors, Vaccine ODT and Others.

According to this Growth Market Reports report, the market from orally disintegrating tablets market is likely to register a CAGR of 10.18% during forecast period 2020-2027, with an anticipated valuation of USD 25,820 million by the end of the 2027.

In addition to market size (in USD Million) and Company Market Share (in % for base year 2019), other data such Macro-economic factors, COVID-19 Impact on the orally disintegrating tablets market is available in final report.

The orally disintegrating tablets market is anticipated to grow significantly during forecast period due to rising awareness about healthy lifestyle. Moreover, due to increasing number of diseases and rising old age population.

Central nervous system (CNS), diseases gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), allergy, and other factors are the key applications driving the market growth.

Factors such as competitive strength and market positioning are key areas considered while selecting top companies to be profiled.

The market is expected to witness growth with slight increase in terms of demand during 2019-2020 owing to the positive impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the orally disintegrating tablets market.

The base year considered for the global orally disintegrating tablets market report is 2019. The complete analysis period is 2017 to 2027, wherein, 2017 & 2018 are the historic years and the forecast is provided from 2020 to 2027.

Major Manufactures include Alkem Labs, Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC, Apotex Inc., Aurobindo Pharma, Bausch Health Companies Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis AG, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Viatris Inc. (Mylan N.V. and Pfizer's Upjohn).