The working model of electric water pumps (EWPs) are similar to standard mechanical water pumps. It operates as a centrifugal pump, in which a driven impeller rotates inside the housing to force water through the engine and back to the radiator where it is cooled, and the cycle begins again.
Considering the swift transition and transformation of technologies, the introduction of EWPs showcases one of the vital developments in the automotive industry and has a substantial impact on the quality and performance of a vehicle. Over the years, consumers are extensively inclined to vehicles with EWP, since it offers improved experience and prolongs the life span of vehicles’ engines as compared to the traditional mechanical water pumps.
Electric water pump is considered to be a core component of the freshly launched vehicles, as it provides cooling with high efficiency to engines and as a result, it is substantially adopted for commercial along with off-highway vehicles (OHVs). The technology, which acts as a cooling and antifreeze agent of a vehicle is extensively utilized for auto engine cooling, automotive heating air circulation, battery cooling, motorcycle engine cooling, and race car engine cooling driven by a 12 Voltage (V), 24V or 48V brushless DC motor. Apart from its usage for commercial and OHVs, the automotive pumps are widely utilized for high-end engines and expensive cars, while some of these cars even undertake three pumps for several functions such as turbocharger, cabin heating, and battery system cooling.
What Makes EVPs Better than Mechanical Pumps?
Mechanical water pumps ideally operate with the help a belt-driven component that utilizes rotational energy generated from the engine and employs it to drive an internal pump mechanism. In the case of inclusion of additional accessory such as air conditioning (AC), this traditional water pump puts more pressure to the engine that leads to either reduction in vehicles’ horsepower, fuel efficiency, or both. Moreover, the conventional pumps are considered to be less efficient as they keep pumping excessive amount of coolant, which is more than the requirement of the engine. This excessive release of coolant puts more stress to the engine.
On the other hand, electric water pump (EWP) works on either battery power or automatic motors in place of belt power and offers solutions to the problems associated with the mechanical pumping technology. EWP can be modulated according to the requirements of the engine. It can be tweaked to perform at given temperature range and acts on demand for cooling. This factor leads to reduction in energy consumption as compared to the traditional water pumps. EWP also has several advantages over mechanical pumps:
- It improves fuel efficiency and ensures better engine temperature management
- Reduction in carbon emission
- Elimination of engine heat shock
- Enhancement of engine life
However, one drawback of EWP is that it is not as powerful as mechanical pump, which means it has lower flow of coolant. Considering these broad spectrum of advantages, especially gain in the horsepower, EWPs are extensively preferred for high-engine sports cars, since they cut the possibility of parasitic losses in horsepower and can keep a linear performance.
Working of EWP in a Vehicle?
Generally, EWP has six major components; rotor, stator, shaft, shaft sleeve, impeller, and pump body, which perform specific functions to generate coolant and ensure optimum performance of the vehicle engine.
- Rotor: The magnet of the BLDC pump is injection molded along with the impeller, which forms the rotor.
- Shaft sleeve: There is a direct injection molded shaft sleeve in the middle of the rotor. The shaft sleeve is made up of a high performance wear-resistant graphite material.
- Stator: Pump stator and circuit board of the motor are encased in the pump body with the help of epoxy resin glue.
- Pump chamber: There is a chamber between the stator and the rotor. So, the rotor chamber of the motor completely isolate from the motor stator and motor control.
- Shaft: It is made using high wear-resistance and high-strength ceramic. It is completely sealed and leak-proof. Since the shaft connects the motor and the pump body directly, there is no need to use traditional mechanical shaft seals.
- Impeller: The vehicle electric water pump majorly uses closed impeller.
Projected Scenario for Global Electric Water Pumps for Commercial and Off-highway Vehicles Market
According to a detailed report published by GMR, the Global Electric Water Pumps for Commercial and Off-highway Vehicles Market was valued at around USD 1093.5 million in 2019 and is projected to expand at a substantial CAGR of about 6.2% during the forecast period, 2020-2027.
One of the major factors that is projected to drive the market in the coming years is rising focus of automakers towards fuel efficient vehicles. In the past few years, automakers have rolled out advanced and futuristic technologies to meet the rising demand for fuel efficiency and high operating capability of vehicles. EWPs provide support to enhance vehicle efficiency, as it provides the coolant at an optimized pressure as per the requirement of the engine. Hence, the demand for a reliable coolant injection pump has increased with the increasing focus to improve vehicle performance and value for customers. However, technical issues associated with EWPs and higher cost as compared to mechanical pumps are some of the factors that are estimated to restrain the market growth in the coming years.
On the basis of products, the electric water pumps for commercial & off-highway vehicles market is segmented classified into primary electric pump and secondary electric pump. The primary electric pump segment accounted for a substantial share of the market in 2019 and is expected to expand at a substantial CAGR in the coming years. This can be attributed to its superior efficiency in the heavy commercial vehicles and off-highway vehicles. However, the secondary electric pump segment is anticipated to expand at a high CAGR during the forecast period attributing to its rising demand in commercial vehicles.
Based on vehicle types, the market is divided into commercial vehicles and off-highway vehicles. The off-highway vehicles segment is expected to control a major share of the market during the forecast period due to the rise in construction and e-commerce operations across the globe.
In terms of regions, the market is fragmented into Asia Pacific, North America, Latin America, Europe, and Middle East & Africa. Asia Pacific has emerged as a key market destination for the future and the market in the region is projected to expand at a substantial CAGR during the forecast period. The region has witnessed a rapid development of construction activities due to rise in the population and emerging countries such as China and India, as it still has their large portion of population working in agricultural activities or farming.
Major Market Players & Competitive Landscape
Major competitors operating in the global electric water pump for commercial and off-highway vehicles market include Continental AG, Schaeffler AG, Robert Bosch GmbH, MAHLE GmbH, Behr Hella Service GmbH, Magna International Inc., Rheinmetall Automotive AG, Gates Corp., GMB Corporation, DaviesCraig, BLDC PUMP Co. Ltd., and VALEO SERVICE.
Most of these leading manufacturers are constantly engaged in the product launches and expansion of their production units in other countries, entering merger and acquisition, collaboration, and partnerships to enhance their market position in the global competition. Following are some of recent news from the global market:
- Continental AG supplied electric coolant pump to Daimler for the production of Mercedes-AMG One in 2020 to cater the demand for the customers in Europe. The company is a major supplier of automotive components such as brake systems, powertrain and chassis components and systems, interior displays, human-machine interfaces, infotainment solutions, vehicle electronics, tires, and technical elastomers. On December 31, 2019, the total sales of automotive OEMs accounted for approximately 71% of the company’s total sales. Currently, the IHO Group accounts for a substantial share in Continental AG under the command of two prominent members of the Supervisory Board, Maria-Elisabeth Schaeffler-Thumann, and Georg F. W. Schaeffler.
- According to a program enhancement under its INA brand, Schaeffler now has switchable water pumps in its spare parts portfolio for VW models (1.4 TSI and 1.6, 2.0 TDI engines) and for Mercedes-Benz models (180-220 CDI engines). With these three new water pumps, Schaeffler accounts for around 4 million more vehicles in Europe. Switchable INA water pumps enable more precise control of coolant flow-rates throughout the entire cooling circuit.
- In January 2019, German auto supplier Robert Bosch declared that it had bought out partner Daimler’s stake in EM-Motive GmbH, a joint venture set up to make motors for electric and hybrid cars. Bosch anticipated that about 20 percent of all cars will be either hybrid or electric vehicles by 2020.